学術研究職におけるジェンダー Career Ways in Science and

日独国際シンポジウム
学術研究職におけるジェンダー
ドイツの取り組みの実践例
– 男女共同参画、多様性と機会均等、仕事と生活の調和 –
International Symposium on
Career Ways in Science and Academia
in Germany and Japan
– Gender Issues, Equal Opportunities, Research Careers, Family and Work-Life Balance –
平成 26 年 9 月 20 日(土)
20th Sept. 2014 (Saturday)
10:00 – 17:30
会 場 / Venue:
日本大学会館(本部)/ Nihon Daigaku Kaikan
〒102-8275 東京都千代田区九段南 4-8-24
4-8-24 Kudan Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8275
主催 / Organisers :
ドイツ研究振興協会日本代表部
後援 / Supported by :
共催 / Co-organisers :
日本大学
津田塾大学
東京都市大学
上智学院男女共同参画推進室
ドイツ科学・イノベーション フォーラム
独立行政法人科学技術振興機構、ドイツ連邦共和国大使館 / Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) , Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in Japan
趣 旨:
日本の大学での女性研究者の割合は2003年の11.2%から2012年には14%にまで上昇しています1。ドイツにおいても同様
の傾向が見られ、ドイツの大学における女性教授の割合は2002年から2012年の10年の間に12%から概ね20%まで革新的
に上昇したと報告されています2。この様に日本においてもドイツにおいても男女共同参画の状況は改善傾向にあるもの
の、まだ充分とは言えず、より均衡のとれた環境作りに向けた対策が今後も必要とされています。
今回はドイツの学術研究職における男女共同参画に対してのドイツ研究振興協会 (DFG) の取り組みが紹介されます。
「学
術界・研究界における男女共同参画の推進」はDFGの活動指針 (DFG Statutes §1)3 のひとつで、DFGがかかわる全ての助
成事業で、男女共同参画は審査の重要な要素として取り扱われています。またDFGではより良い男女共同参画の環境作り
の為にDFGの協会構成会員に対しアドバイスや支援を行っています。
このシンポジウムにおいては、日独の男女共同参画の現状、特に学術研究職における実情を確認し、双方の取り組みを共
有することにより、今後、両国での男女共同参画推進に役立てること目的としています。
Objective
The number of female researchers increased from 11.2% in 2003 to 14% in 20121 at Japanese universities. Similar but slightly
more drastic change has been reported in Germany that the number of female professors rose from around 12% to almost
20% between 2002 and 20122 in German universities. Despite these improvement in numbers, gender bias still exists in both
Japan and Germany and therefore there are potential and need for further progress.
Effort of DFG (German Research Foundation) in the gender equality regard in German science research society will be
presented. The DFG has prescribed in its statutes that it "promotes equality between men and women in the scientific and
academic communities" (DFG Statutes § 1)3. In all its funding programmes “equal opportunities” is an important criteria for
evaluation. The DFG provides advice and support to the member institutions.
This symposium is to provide an occasion to look at the situation of female researchers in Japan and Germany and to
exchange ideas on good practice projects and measures implemented to increase the participation of women in science and
academia in these two countries.
2
1
http://www.stat.go.jp/data/kagaku/kekka/index.htm
2
http://www.bmbf.de/de/494.php
3
http://www.dfg.de/en/research_funding/principles_dfg_funding/equal_opportunities/research_oriented/index.html
プログラム
10:00
総合司会: 日本大学 大坪 久子
開会挨拶
ヴォルフガング・フォイト
10:10
10:20
来賓挨拶
和田 勝行
文部科学省 科学技術・学術政策局 人材政策課
人材政策推進室室長
アンドレアス・キルヒナー
ドイツ連邦共和国大使館 科学課課長参事官
セッション I: 日本とドイツの現状について
ウルリケ・アイコフ
渡 辺 美代子
11:00
DFG プログラム評価・開発部部長
(独)科学技術振興機構 執行役ダイバーシティ推進室長
セッション II: 基調講演
ウルリケ・アイコフ
DFG プログラム評価・開発部部長
ダグマー・ジーモン
ベルリン社会科学研究センター(WZB)、DFG「研究職にお
ける男女共同参画基準」ワーキンググループメンバー
12:00
昼食・ポスターセッション
13:20
主催者挨拶 大 塚 兵衛
13:30
ドイツ研究振興協会(DFG)日本代表部 代表
日本大学 学長
セッション III: 男女共同参画の取り組みの実例紹介
野 呂 知加子
日本大学 生産工学部教授
小舘 亮之
津田塾大学 学芸学部教授
北澤 宏一
東京都市大学 学長
エファ・ライヒヴァイン
DFG プログラム評価・開発部
ニケ・アルケマ
DFG プログラム評価・開発部
15:30
休憩
16:00
セッション IV: パネルディスカッション
座長:
ウルリケ・アイコフ 博士、渡 辺 美代子 先生
パネラー: ダグマー・ジーモン 先生、野 呂 知加子 先生、小 舘 亮 之 先生、
北 澤 宏 一 先生、エファ・ライヒヴァイン 博士、ニケ・アルケマ 博士
17:20
閉会挨拶
國 枝 マリ
津田塾大学 学長
このシンポジウムはシャイン・ウィークス公式サイドイベントとして登録されています
3
Programme
Moderator: Prof. Dr. Hisako Ohtsubo, Nihon University
10:00
Opening Remarks / Welcome
Mr. Wolfgang FOIT
10:10
10:20
Director, DFG Office Japan
Greetings
Mr. Katsuyuki WADA
Director, Office for Human Resource Development, Knowledge
Infrastructure Policy Division, Science and Technology Policy
Bureau, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and
Technology (MEXT)
Mr. Andreas KIRCHNER
Counsellor for Science and Technology, Embassy of the
Federal Republic of Germany
Session I: Introducing the gender equality in science in Germany and Japan
Facts and figures on the participation of women in science and academia | Efforts
in gender equality in Germany
Dr. Ulrike EICKHOFF
Head of Group, Group “Quality Assurance and Programme
Development”, DFG
Japan’s Initiatives for Gender Balance in Science and Technology
Dr. Miyoko WATANABE
11:00
Senior Director, Director, Office for Diversity and Inclusion,
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
Session II: Keynote speech
Introduction of the DFG-initiative on the “Research-Oriented Standards on Gender
Equality” and progress report
Dr. Ulrike EICKHOFF
Head of Group, Group “Quality Assurance and Programme
Development”, DFG
The DFG "Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality: Organization,
Reputation and Sanction matter!"
Dr. Dagmar SIMON
12:00
Lunch / Poster session
13:20
Greetings
Prof. Dr. Kichibee OTSUKA
13:30
Member of the DFG Working Group “Research-Oriented
Standards on Gender Equality”, WZB Berlin
President, Nihon University
Session III: Hands-on examples and experiences with gender equality
Career Way Project of Nihon University
Prof. Dr. Chikako NORO
Professor, Applied Molecular Chemistry, College of Industrial
Technology (CIT) Nihon University
Building the Tsuda Model - Cross Generational Networking and Integration of
Science with Arts and Humanities
Prof. Dr. Eng. Akihisa KODATE
4
Director, Center for Women in Research, Professor, Dept. of
Computer Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tsuda College
The reason why some of the changes are slow in Japan
Prof. D.Sc. Koichi KITAZAWA
President, Tokyo City University
Role and perspective of a funding organization | DFG measures to promote equal
opportunities in research and academia
Dr. Eva REICHWEIN
Group “Quality Assurance and Programme Development”,
DFG
Hands-on examples of equal opportunity measures at German universities
| Excerpt from the DFG-toolbox “Instrumentenkasten”
Dr. Nike ALKEMA
15:30
Coffee break
16:00
Session IV: Panel Session
Group “Quality Assurance and Programme Development”,
DFG
Moderator/Chair: Dr. Ulrike Eickhoff, Dr. Miyoko Watanabe
Panellists: Dr. Dagmar SIMON, Prof. Dr. Chikako NORO, Prof. Dr. Eng. Akihisa KODATE,
Prof. D.Sc. Koichi KITAZAWA, Dr. Eva REICHWEIN, Dr. Nike ALKEMA
17:20
Closing
Prof. Dr. Mari KUNIEDA
President, Tsuda College
This event is registered as an official side event for "Shine Weeks"
5
Moderator
Prof. Dr. Hisako OHTSUBO
Senior Researcher, Research Institute of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy
Nihon University
Dr. Hisako Ohtsubo is a Senior Researcher, School of Pharmacy,
Nihon University. She was a former Professor & Head of the
Female Scientists Support Unit (FSSU) in the same university
(2009-2011). She spent her early days of career at Stony Brook
University, NY as a faculty member of Dept. of Microbiology. She
has been working on Mobile Genetic Elements of bacteria as
well as rice plants, and is recognized as one of the first members
who elucidated the structure and function of those elements.
She spent her recent years as a Lecturer of IMCB, University
of Tokyo. Since 2002, she has been one of the active members
of EPMEWSE, an organization to promote gender equality in
STEM in Japan. Her recent publications are: (1) Maximizing the
Potential of Science in Japan: promoting equal participation for
women scientists through leadership development in Genes
to Cells (2013), (2) Japan’s lagging gender equality” in Science
(2013).
Opening Remarks
Wolfgang FOIT
Director
DFG Office Japan
Apr. 1985-present: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Since 2002, I have been developing curricula for professional training
seminars for research managers from German universities/research
organisations and also responsible for the staff and organisational
development module, part of the master’s programme in research
management at the German University of Administrative Sciences in Speyer.
Aug. 2013-present: Director, DFG Office Japan
Apr. 2000-July 2013: Head of Human Resources and Legal Affairs Division
Sept. 1996-Mar. 2000: Head of Personnel
Mar. 1990-Aug. 1996: Human Resources Officer
Apr. 1985-Feb. 1990: Legal Officer
RELATED PROFFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
Sept.-Dec. 1991: Participated in implementing measures of the
Hochschulerneuerungsprogramm
EDUCATION
Sept. 1982:Second State Law Exam
Apr. 1980Sept. 1982:Practical Training, Higher Regional Court of Cologne
Mar. 1979: First State Law Exam
1973-1979:Study of Law, University of Bonn
1971-1972:Study of Law, University of Mainz
Greetings
Katsuyuki WADA
Director, Office for Human Resource Development, Knowledge Infrastructure Policy Division, Science and Technology Policy Bureau
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)
Oct. 2013 Director, Office for Human Resource Development,
Knowledge Infrastructure Policy Division, Science and
Technology Policy Bureau
Oct. 2012 Director, School Health Education Division, Sports and Youth Bureau
Aug. 2010 Director, Office for Financial Support in Upper Secondary Education, Financial Affairs Division, Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau, MEXT
Apr. 2008 Deputy Director, Socio-Economic System Division,
Economic and Fiscal Policy, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan
Apr. 2005 First Secretary, Information and Culture Division, Mission of Japan to the European Union, MOFA
Sep. 2003 Deputy Director, International Affairs Division, Minister's Secretariat, MEXT
Sep. 2001 Director, Culture Division, Nagasaki Prefectural Board
of Education
Aug. 2000 Deputy Director, Local Facilities Aid Division, Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau, MEXT
Aug. 1999 Senior Specialist, Information and Event Division, Secretariat of Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, Ministry of
Foreign Affairs(MOFA)
Apr. 1996 Unit Chief, Lower Secondary Education Division, Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau, MEXT
Apr. 1994 Unit Chief, The Open University of Japan
Apr. 1993 Join Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, Sports
and Technology(MEXT)
Educational Media and Information Division, Lifelong
Learning Bureau
Mar. 1993 B.A. in Social Science, Waseda University
Andreas KIRCHNER
Counsellor for Science and Technology
Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany
Since September 2011 at the German Embassy in Japan,
Counsellor and Head of the Science and Technology Section.
He studied Law and Translation of Japanese/English at the
University of Bonn and passed the Legal State Exams in
2000/2002.
6
At the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
(BMBF) he was Deputy Head of Division “Cooperation with Asia
and Oceania” from 2006 until 2011. After entering the BMBF in
2003 he had worked in the divisions for “Lifelong Learning” and
“Regulation of Vocational Training”.
Session 1
Dr. Ulrike Eickhoff
Head of Group “Quality Assurance and Programme Development”, DFG Head Office
DFG (German Research Foundation)
Dr. Ulrike Eickhoff received her PhD in Law in 2000 at the University
of Hamburg with a thesis about Women´s Rights in Migration Law.
She has graduated in Law and Economics. In the DFG Head Office
she has over the years been responsible for personnel recruitment
and human research development, IT project management, and
the legal department.
Currently she and her Group “Quality Assurance and Programme
Development” are responsible for the main bodies of the DFG,
Senate and Joint Committee, the quality assurance of all funding
processes and the development of funding programmes as well as
funding programme services.
She has from the very beginning been a member of the internal
steering committee of the German “Excellence Initiative”.
Among others she is in charge of gender equality in the research
funding process at the DFG and in this function has taken part
in developing the “Research-oriented Standards on Gender
Equality.”
Facts and figures on the participation of women in science and academia | Efforts in gender equality in
Germany
This introductory talk will present some facts and figures on the participation of women in science and academia in
Germany, and take a brief look at the situation in Europe as well. It will be looked back in time to comment on the progress
made to date as well as to pinpoint at further room for improvement. The different stages along the career ladder will be
looked at to demonstrate the problem of the “leaky pipeline”.
Overall good progress has been made in Germany, yet the proportion of women at some career levels, particularly at the
senior positions, still remains too low. Also in the crucial transition to academic independence – from doctorate to habilitation
and the first professorship – there are fewer women than there could be.
The presentation will also give a brief review of the different initiatives in Germany (and Europe) to show that timing,
sequencing and the political setting are critical factor of success to spur action for gender equality.
Dr. Miyoko O. Watanabe
Senior Director, Director, Office for Diversity and Inclusion
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
1979-1986
1986-1988
1996-1999
1997
1999-2002
2002-2003
2004-2005
2005-2006
2009-2012
Researcher at Toshiba R&D Center
Postdoctoral Fellow at Dept. of Physics, Dalhousie
University, Canada
Researcher at JRCAT Project at Minister of Economy,
Trade and Industry
Visiting Researcher in Nanoscale Physics Research
Laboratory, The University of Birmingham, U.K.
Senior Research at Toshiba R&D Center
Group Leader at Toshiba R&D Center
Chief Specialist at Audit Division in Toshiba
headquarters
Group Leader at Power Systems Company in Toshiba
Executive Quality Leader at Innovation Division in
Toshiba
2013-2014
Fellow and Program Director at Japan Science and
Technology Agency(JST)
2013-presentAuditor at National Institute for Environmental
Studies, Japan
2014-presentSenior Director at JST
Present major council & committee memberships
Council member of Science Council of Japan
Chairperson of Applied Physics Committee in Science Council of
Japan
Council member of Science and Technology Council at Ministry of
Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan
Chairperson of Liaison Association Committee for Promoting
Women in Physics
Japan’s Initiatives for Gender Balance in Science and Technology
Although Japan has long been a laggard in terms of gender balance in science and technology, the situation may at last be
changing for the better. Japan has implemented clear initiatives to address the representation of Women in the Growth Strategy
announced by the Japanese government in 2013. It has been emphasized that the expansion of opportunities for women is a
key enabler. It is now the policy of the Japanese government to facilitate the full participation of female managers and working
women in the workforce. The goal of women ratio in positions of leadership was set to be 30% in 2020. Accordingly, the
ministries and the companies in Japan have launched programs to expand opportunities for women scientists and engineers.
Japanese female scientists and engineers have started assuming bigger responsibilities in the society. Furthermore, a
number of female scientists and engineers have recently been making a far greater contribution to the research in new area
and the development of new products and systems, resulting in a steam with powerful contribution to innovation in the society.
The importance of networking of women scientists and engineers has also been recognized recently. Both of internal and
external networking is now more popular in Japan, in Asia, and in the world.
7
Session 2
Dr. Ulrike Eickhoff
Head of Group “Quality Assurance and Programme Development”, DFG Head Office
DFG (German Research Foundation)
Introduction of the DFG-initiative on the “Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality” and
Progress Report
In 2008 the DFG and its member organisations initiated the “Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality”. With this
voluntary commitment, the institutions have agreed to define and implement structural and personnel standards, aimed at
ensuring gender equality in research and higher education.
The DFG “Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality” have been a very important impetus for more equality
at German universities. By entering into this voluntary commitment, the DFG member organisations defined structural and
personnel standards for a sustainable equality policy in the research and university community. The key goal of the equality
standards has been to significantly increase the proportion of women at all academic career levels on the basis of the "cascade
model", which sets out targets for the proportion of women at each career level based on the proportion of women at the
next lower level.
The achieved progress has been revealed in a series of reports submitted by the DFG member institutions between 2009
and 2013. These reports have been reviewed and evaluated by a working group appointed by the DFG General Assembly.
In this presentation, a brief narrative of the emergence of the DFG-initiative, the review process and the evaluation
criteria will be given. It will be looked at the results of the different review rounds with a focus on the final reports and the
main findings of the working group. The talk will close with an outlook to the measures that have been jointly approved by the
General Assembly in 2013 to sustainably pursue the implementation process of the “Research-Oriented Standards on Gender
Equality”.
Dr. Dagmar Simon
©David Ausserhofer
Member of the DFG Working Group “Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality”
WZB Berlin
Dr. Dagmar Simon studied Political Sciences and German Studies
in Frankfurt/Main and Berlin, and obtained her Ph.D. at the Free
University of Berlin (Dr. rer. pol). From 1979 to 1989 she worked
as an editor and lecturer for numerous publishers, editorial
departments and journals. Since 1989 she is a staff member of
the Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB), first working as
head of the department of research planning and coordination.
From 2004 to 2007, Dagmar Simon and Andreas Knie cofounded the project group “Science Policy Studies”, while from
2006 to 2007 she was in charge of the scientific coordination
of the then newly founded Institute for Research Information
and Quality Assurance (iFQ). Since 2008 she is head of the WZB’s
research group “Science Policy Studies” focusing on empirical
research in the fields of Evaluation Studies, Science Policy
Studies, Analysis of Organizations and Gender Studies. She is
among other things member of the BBAW interdisciplinary work
group “Excellence Initiative”, member of the German Research
Foundation (DFG) work group “Research-Oriented standards on
Gender Equality”, she is co-editor of the social science journal
“Leviathan” and member of the Advisory Board of the Journal
“WSI-Mitteilungen”. Since 2013 she is a National Expert of the
OECD work group "Research Institutions and Human Resources".
The DFG "Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality: Organization, Reputation and Sanction
matter!"
In this lecture I will first discuss the situation of female scientists at German’s Universities and the last initiatives and
programs of science policy to achieve more gender equality – particularly for women in executive positions. I focus on
the research-oriented equality standards of the German Research foundation and their effects on the universities. The
characteristics of these standards are the responsibility of the university - presidents and of the faculties/departments -, the
integration into organisational action and the obligatory guidelines of personal responsibility for the increase of the number
of researchers on every hierarchical level. Thereby the most important actors at the universities – the representatives of the
organization and the disciplines - playing an active role in equal opportunities policy in science. These findings are discussed
against the background of the german universities reforms: “New Public Management”, institutional differentiation and profile
development. The third relevant actor is the German Research Foundation itself, because it is in the german science system
an organization provided with much reputation. The presentation shows which effects organization, reputation and sanctions
proved as success factors for equal opportunities policy and discusses finally the fact that sustainable change of gender
relations in universities requires a cultural change of the institution.
8
Greetings
Prof. Dr. Kichibee OTSUKA
President
Nihon University
Degree
Doctor of Dental Science, Ph.D.1973
Reseach Field Oral Biochemistry
Career History
1993- March 2014 Pofessor, Nihon University
2004-2011
*Dean of Nihon University School of Dentistry
*Dean of Graduate School of Dentistry, Nihon
University
*Director of Dental Research Center (Dentistry)
2004 Trustee of Nihon University, Incorporated
Educational Institution
2010-2011 Director of University Research Center, Nihon
University
2011-
*President of Nihon University
*President of Nihon University Junior College
*Dean of Law School, Nihon University
*Dean of Graduate School of Business, Nihon
University
Academic Activities
Present
*Board Chairman, The Society for Hard Tissue
Regenerative Biology
*Trustee, The Japanese Biochemical Society
Consecutive *Director, Japanese Dental Education Association
*Trustee, Japanese Association for Oral Biology
*President, The 21st General Meeting of the
Japanese Association for Dental Science
Session 3
Prof. Dr. Chikako YOSHIDA-NORO
Professor, Applied Molecular Chemistry, College of Industrial Technology (CIT)
Nihon University
Education: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiba
University (BS); Department of Biophysics , Faculty of Science,
Kyoto University Graduate School (PhD)
Research Carrier: Postdoctoral fellow, National Institute of
Neuroscience, NCNP; Researcher, Group Leader, JST ERATO
Furusawa MorphoGene Project; Senior Research Associate,
University of Cambridge in U.K.; Researcher, JST PRESTO ”Cell
and Information”; Researcher, RIKEN Brain Science Institute;
Senior Research Scientist, RIKEN BioResource Center;
2005- ARISH, 2008- CIT, 2008- Cell Regeneration and
Transplantation, Med. Sch., Nihon University. 2012- Professor.
Research Field: Cell Adhesion, Stem Cell in Development,
Regenerative Medicine
Gender Equality Activities: 2008-2010 Head of Project Core,
Female Researchers Support Unit, Nihon University; 2010- Chair
of Gender Equality Committee, CIT, Nihon University; 20112013 Member of Gender Equality Committee, JST; 2012 Chair
of Science Summer School for Girls at NWEC; 2012-2013 SubLeader of CareerWay Project, Nihon University, 2013 Chair of
the 5th Japan-China-Korea Women Leaders Forum.
Career Way Project of Nihon University
The ratio of female researchers in Japan is lower than other advanced countries, especially in the fields of science and
technology (S&T). Japanese government has been implementing the measures and funds for promoting female researchers.
“Career Way Project” of Nihon University, a Supporting Activities for Female Researchers Project funding from MEXT (FY20082010), contributed to promote female researchers and foster future generations. Not only employment of female researchers
but also educational programs for developing female leaders are necessary for the promotion of gender equality in S&T.
Career education programs for female students in collaboration with companies or other countries are important. For the
program of fostering future generations, we had done more than 40 activities for stimulating scientific interest in collaboration
with the attached girl’s high school. We also provided the opportunities for the girls to meet role models working in S&T fields
and made a leaflet to show more than 100 female role models in our university. The results of the questionnaire indicate the
effect of these activities on the interest and course choice of high school girls. Career Way Project has been continued as a
Nihon University Chairman of the Board of Trustees Grant in FY2012-2013.
9
Session 3
Prof. Dr. Eng. Akihisa Kodate
Director, Center for Women in Research, Professor, Dept. of Computer Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts
Tsuda College
Akihisa Kodate received his Bachelor of Engineering in 1992,
Master of Engineering in 1994 and Doctor of Engineering in
2000, all from Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
He was a researcher at University of Hannover, Germany, a
visiting Associate Professor at the Global Information and
Telecommunication Institute of Waseda University, and a visiting
Professor at Center for Digital Technology and Management of
Munich, Germany.
He joined Tsuda College in 2005.
Since 2010 he has been a senior research fellow of Institute of
Information and Communication Policy under the Ministry of
Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan and the Director of
the Center for Women in Research of Tsuda College since 2012.
He served as a secretary of the Committee for Promoting Equal
Participation of Men and Women of IEICE.
He has been engaged in the research of multimedia processing
and its applications, such as video content analysis and personal
life-log services.
Building the Tsuda Model
- Cross Generational Networking and Integration of Science with Arts and Humanities Tsuda College was founded in 1900 as “Joshi Eigaku Juku” (Women’s Institute for English Studies) by Umeko Tsuda, as the one
of the first private institutions of higher education for women in Japan. Since 1943 the college has been conducting natural science
education and has currently two natural science departments, namely Departments of Computer Science and the Department of
Mathematics within the faculty of Liberal Arts. The supporting activity of women in research has been ongoing triggered by the
adoption of Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology of Japan Science and Technology Agency in 2009.
By enhancing cross generational networking and integration of Science with Arts and Humanities, we have focused mainly on
the following three programs; a) Promotion of research activities for young female researchers, b) Encouragement of graduate
schools for undergraduate students, c) Science course selection support for high-school girls students.
Though some positive effects have been confirmed in the short-term as a result of these activities, we are facing the next
big challenge, that is the continuation of these programs by building sustainable environment. One solution for this would be
closer and more efficient collaboration with other organizations sharing the same goals.
Prof. D.Sc. Koichi Kitazawa
President
Tokyo City University
1966
1968
Graduated from University of Tokyo in Dept of Chemistry,
Master of Engineering from Dept of Industrial
Chemistry, Univ of Tokyo. 1972 Graduated with D.Sc.
from Dept of Materials Science, MIT, US.
1972-3 DSR staff of Ceramics Division of MIT.
1973
Research associate, Department of Synthetic Chemistry,
University of Tokyo
1980 Lecturer, Department of Applied Physics, University of
Tokyo.
1987
1990
1994
2002
Professor, Department of Industrial Chemistry,
Professor, Department of Superconducting Technology.
Professor, Deopartment of Applied Chemistry
Executive Director(2002-07), Japan Science and Technology Corporation
2007-11 President of JST, Japan Science and Technology Agency.
2011
Chairperson of the Independent Investigation commission
on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident.
2013
President of Tokyo City University
The reason why some of the changes are slow in Japan
It is recognized that the gender equality issue has been put with “a high priority” by the cabinet office and various ministries and yet the
speed of improvement in Japan has been the slowest among the OECD countries.
In my experience in an investigation commission on the Fukushima nuclear accident, we learned that in Japan there are many problems
left untouched because of the negligence of the society. The problems are recognized important but few persons in the responsible
administrative positions dare make key decisions while they stay in the positions for a couple of years of rotation period. The investigation
committees unanimously concluded that the Fukushima accident was “man-made” rather than “natural disaster” created.
I can point out a particular nuclear safety guiding principle that was present in the Nuclear Safety Commission until recently, i.e., “There
are no need to prepare in advance for the electric power loss in a nuclear power station because it is relatively very unlikely for a station
blackout to occur in Japan”. This rule is said to have given an important excuse why the power companies left themselves for many years
unprepared against severe nuclear accidents. They were aware that many overseas reactors had started taking necessary measures since
twenty years back but they felt it to be difficult for just each one of them to speak up themselves and to set a new effective rule. “Safety
myth” was the overwhelming concept in those days among the nuclear promoting community.
The decision-making process in Japan in many cases is not top down but depends upon so called “shingi-kai” or part-time deliberation
council. The council “professional” members are invited part time from academia, industries and general public. They are usually the people
who do not think that they are finally responsible for the results to come out, but just occasional advisors. The draft version for the council
deliberation is made by each of the “administration offices of the ministry” of which the members are composed of the ministry officers who are
on rotation and those dispatched temporary from the external organizations of relevance. The basic attitude of them is to adhere to the past.
It is hence relatively slow for Japan to change the society due to this reason.
Therefore a top-down style need to be adopted sometimes in the decision making process. The gender equality problem seems to be
similar. Starting from the basic human right, I would like to discuss to what extent we can go.
10
Session 3
Dr. Eva Reichwein
Group “Quality Assurance and Programme Development”, DFG Head Office
DFG (German Research Foundation)
Dr Reichwein studied Social and Economic history, German
Literature and Media at the Philipps-University Marburg. She
was awarded her PhD in Social and Economic history in 2010
with a study on child poverty in Germany.
Before joining the DFG she has worked as a research fellow at
the central office of the Max Weber Foundation and was among
others responsible for the “Equal Opportunities Strategy”.
Since December 2009 Eva Reichwein is working at the DFG
Head Office in Bonn within the Group „Quality Assurance and
Programme Development“. Since her appointment one of her
main tasks have been the development, implementation and
monitoring of measures to promote gender equality within the
funding portfolio of the DFG. In this function she has also been
responsible for the process guidance of the “Research-Oriented
Standards on Gender Equality” of the DFG.
Currently Dr Reichwein is also working on introducing an
integrative quality management system within the DFG Head
Office.
Role and perspective of a funding organisation | DFG measures to promote equal opportunities in
research and academia
The DFG gives highest priority to the adequate representation of women in its review and decision-making bodies. It also
advances gender equality in the design of its funding programmes and through a wide range of additional measures.
The presentation will give an overview of why and how the DFG promotes equal opportunities. It will also offer a glance at
the representation of female scientists within the DFG’s review and decision making bodies, as well as among the applicants
and grantees.
While the “Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality” of the DFG address the universities and the scientific system,
the DFG as a funding body tries to ensure gender equality to men and women within its funding programmes and schemes.
The equality measures range from making allowance for the personal situation of applicants in the evaluation of their
academic achievements (for example periods spent raising children) to providing additional funds for equality measures to
support family-friendly measures.
Dr. Nike Alkema
Group “Quality Assurance and Programme Development”, DFG Head Office
DFG (German Research Foundation)
Dr Alkema studied Modern European Studies at University
College London (University of London) and Politics at St Antony’s
College (University of Oxford) where she has been awarded her
DPhil in 2011.
She has been working in management consulting for a few years
where she gained extensive project experience with a focus on
restructuring and change management processes.
She joined the DFG Head Office in 2012 where she works within
the Group “Quality Assurance and Programme Development”.
In that function she has supported the final review of the reports
by the DFG member institutions within the implementation
process of the “Research-Oriented Standards of Gender
Equality”. She has been responsible for the site relaunch of
the webportal “Instrumentenkasten” which offers examples of
gender equality measures within the German university system.
Furthermore she is responsible for the funding programme
“Research Fellowships” which serves to promote early career
researchers to carry out a specific research project abroad.
Hands-on examples of equal opportunity measures at German universities | Excerpt from the DFGtoolbox “Instrumentenkasten”
This presentation introduces the webportal www.instrumentenkasten.dfg.de which offers a wide-ranging collection of
measures intended to promote equal opportunities in research and academia in Germany.
This “toolbox” (so far only available in German) is a searchable, easy-to-use database which is intended to support the
work of those that engage with gender equality: equal opportunities officers, researchers in the field of gender studies, policy
makers and simply those that do scholarly or scientific work within the research system.
The database is an important component of the "Research-Oriented Standards on Gender Equality". To better support the
implementation process of the defined structural and personnel standards and in order to provide assistance to its members,
the DFG put up this database with quality-assured hands-on examples of equal opportunity measures.
Next to briefly explaining the structure and the different features of the database, the presentation will look at a selection
of examples to demonstrate which measures are seen as particularly helpful and effective to support gender equality. A focus
will be set on measures designed to allow for a better compatibility of family and career and measures that foster gender
mainstreaming.
11
Closing
Prof. Dr. Mari KUNIEDA
President
Tsuda College
EDUCATION
B.A. Tsuda College, Tokyo,1969
M.A. Columbia University, New York, 1978
M.Ed. Columbia University, New York, 1979
Ed.D. Columbia University, New York, 1983
ACADEMIC EXPERIENCE
Tsuda College
Part-time lecturer, April 1985-March 1988
日独国際シンポジウム
International Symposium on
Tokai University
Associate Professor, April 1988-March 1991
Professor, April 1991-March 1992
Tsuda College
Associate Professor, April 1992-March 1998
Professor, April 1998-Present
Member of the Board of Trustee, April 2005-October 2012
President, November 2012-Present
学術研究職におけるジェンダー
Career Ways in Science and Academia in Germany and Japan